Peer-reviewed and published. Please cite as:

Orynycz, P. (2022). Say It Right: AI Neural Machine Translation Empowers New Speakers to Revitalize Lemko. In: Degen, H., Ntoa, S. (eds) Artificial Intelligence in HCI. HCII 2022. Lecture Notes in Computer Science(), vol 13336. Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-031-05643-7_37

Lemko Demonstrative Pronouns

Please find below the translation, etymology, full declension tables, and references for the Lemko demonstrative pronouns тотtot⟩ meaning “this” or “these”, and тамтотtamtot⟩ meaning “that” or “those”.

Translation

The Lemko demonstrative pronoun of dictionary (masculine singular) form тотtot⟩ is translatable into English as “this” in the singular and “these” in the plural. When prefixed with тамtam⟩, (for example, тамтотtamtot⟩), it is translatable as “that” in the singular and “those” in the plural.

Etymology

The Lemko demonstrative pronoun of dictionary (masculine singular) form тотtot⟩ derives from reconstructed proto-Slavic *. Further afield, it is related to the English word that and Sanskrit तत्tat⟩ (Vasmer, 1958, p. 128), translatable as “this” and appearing in the famous line तत्त्वमसिtat tvam asi⟩ meaning “That thou art”.

The entry for the Muscovite Russian demonstrative pronoun тотtot⟩ in Vasmer’s Russisches Etymologisches Wörterbuch, Dritter Band: Sta–Ÿ (1958, p. 128).

Nearby (“this” and “these”)

Singular (“This”)

All of the following forms are translatable into English as “this”.

Masculine

CaseLemkoPolishUkrainianRussian
Nominativeтот ⟨totatenцейэ́тот
Genitiveто́го ⟨tóhotegoцього́э́того
Dativeто́му ⟨tómutemuцьому́э́тому
Accusative (inanimate)тот ⟨tota
tenцейэ́тот
Accusative
(animate)
то́го ⟨tóhotegoцього́э́того
Instrumentalтым ⟨tŷmbtymцимэ́тим
Locativeтым ⟨tŷmctymцьо́му, цімэ́том

a Pyrtej (2013) gives той ⟨toj⟩ as an alternative form of the Lemko masculine nominative (as well as accusative inanimate) singular demonstrative pronoun (p. 107). That form is absent in Fontański & Chomiak (2000, p. 97).

b Pyrtej (2013) gives тим ⟨tym⟩ as the Lemko form of the masculine instrumental singular demonstrative pronoun (p. 107), in contrast to the form тымtŷm⟩ appearing in Fontański & Chomiak (2000, p. 97).

c Pyrtej (2013) gives тім ⟨tim⟩ as the Lemko form of the masculine locative singular demonstrative pronoun (p. 107), in contrast to the form тымtŷm⟩ appearing in Fontański & Chomiak (2000, p. 97).

Feminine

CaseLemkoPolishUkrainianRussian
Nominativeто́та ⟨tóta⟩ataцяэ́та
Genitiveтой ⟨toj⟩tejціє́їэ́той
Dativeтій ⟨tij⟩tejційэ́той
Accusativeто́ту ⟨tótu⟩bцюэ́ту
Instrumentalтом ⟨tom⟩ціє́юэ́той, э́тою
Locativeтій ⟨tij⟩tejційэ́той

a Pyrtej (2013) gives та ⟨ta⟩ and та́я ⟨tája⟩ as alternative forms of the Lemko feminine nominative singular demonstrative pronoun (p. 107). Those forms are absent in Fontański & Chomiak (2000, p. 97).

b Pyrtej (2013) gives ту ⟨tu⟩ and ту́ю ⟨túju⟩ as alternative forms of the Lemko feminine accusative singular demonstrative pronoun (p. 107). Those forms are absent in Fontański & Chomiak (2000, p. 97).

Neuter

CaseLemkoPolishUkrainianRussian
Nominativeто́то ⟨tóto⟩atoцеэ́то
Genitiveто́го ⟨tóho⟩tegoцього́э́того
Dativeто́му ⟨tómu⟩temuцьому́э́тому
Accusativeто́то ⟨tóto⟩
toцейэ́то
Instrumentalтым ⟨tŷm⟩btymцимэ́тим
Locativeтым ⟨tŷm⟩ctymцьо́му, цімэ́том

a Pyrtej (2013) gives то ⟨to⟩ and то́є ⟨tóje⟩ as alternative forms of the Lemko neuter nominative singular demonstrative pronoun (p. 107). Those forms are absent in Fontański & Chomiak (2000, p. 97).

b Pyrtej (2013) gives тим ⟨tym⟩ as the Lemko form of the neuter instrumental singular demonstrative pronoun (p. 107), in contrast to the form тымtŷm⟩ appearing in Fontański & Chomiak (2000, p. 97).

c Pyrtej (2013) gives тім ⟨tim⟩ as the Lemko form of the neuter locative singular demonstrative pronoun (p. 107), in contrast to the form тымtŷm⟩ appearing in Fontański & Chomiak (2000, p. 97).

References
Fontański & Chomiak (2000, p. 97).
Pyrtej (2013, p. 107).

Plural (“These”)

The following forms are used regardless of grammatical gender and are translatable into English as “these”.

CaseLemkoPolishUkrainianRussian
Nominativeто́ты ⟨tótŷte/ciціэ́ти
Genitiveтых ⟨tŷch⟩tychцихэ́тих
Dativeтым ⟨tŷm⟩tymцимэ́тим
Accusative (inanimate)то́ты ⟨tótŷteціэ́ти
Accusative (animate)тых ⟨tŷch
tychцихэ́тих
Instrumentalты́ма ⟨tŷma⟩tymiци́миэ́тими
Locativeтых ⟨tŷch⟩tychцихэ́тих

Distant (“that”, “those”)

To communicate distance from the speaker, simply prefix all of the above pronouns with Lemko там ⟨tam⟩. This is equivalent to saying “that” instead of “this” or “those” instead of “these” in English.

Singular (“That”)

CaseMasculineFeminineNeuter
Nominativeтамтот ⟨tamtotaтамто́та ⟨tamtóta⟩dтамто́то ⟨tamtóto⟩x
Genitiveтамто́го ⟨tamtóhoтамтой ⟨tamtoj⟩тамто́го ⟨tamtóho⟩
Dativeтамто́му ⟨tamtómuтамтій ⟨tamtij⟩тамто́му ⟨tamtómu⟩
Accusative (inanimate)тамтот ⟨tamtota
тамто́ту ⟨tamtótu⟩eтамто́то ⟨tamtóto
Accusative
(animate)
тамто́го ⟨tamtóhoтамто́ту ⟨tamtótu⟩eтамто́то ⟨tamtóto
Instrumentalтамтым ⟨tamtŷmbтамтом ⟨tamtom⟩тамтым ⟨tamtŷm⟩b
Locativeтамтым ⟨tŷmcтамтій ⟨tamtij⟩тамтым ⟨tamtŷmc

a Pyrtej (2013) gives той ⟨toj⟩ as an alternative form of the Lemko masculine nominative (as well as accusative inanimate) singular demonstrative pronoun (p. 107). That form is absent in Fontański & Chomiak (2000, p. 97).

b Pyrtej (2013) gives тим ⟨tym⟩ as the Lemko form of the masculine and neuter instrumental singular demonstrative pronoun (p. 107), in contrast to the form тымtŷm⟩ appearing in Fontański & Chomiak (2000, p. 97).

c Pyrtej (2013) gives тім ⟨tim⟩ as the Lemko form of the masculine and neuter locative singular demonstrative pronoun (p. 107), in contrast to the form тымtŷm⟩ appearing in Fontański & Chomiak (2000, p. 97).

d Pyrtej (2013) gives та ⟨ta⟩ and та́я ⟨tája⟩ as alternative forms of the Lemko feminine nominative singular demonstrative pronoun (p. 107). Those forms are absent in Fontański & Chomiak (2000, p. 97).

e Pyrtej (2013) gives ту ⟨tu⟩ and ту́ю ⟨túju⟩ as alternative forms of the Lemko feminine accusative singular demonstrative pronoun (p. 107). Those forms are absent in Fontański & Chomiak (2000, p. 97).

f Pyrtej (2013) gives то ⟨to⟩ and то́є ⟨tóje⟩ as alternative forms of the Lemko neuter nominative singular demonstrative pronoun (p. 107). Those forms are absent in Fontański & Chomiak (2000, p. 97).

Plural (“Those”)

CaseLemkoPolishUkrainianRussian
Nominativeтамто́ты ⟨tamtótŷtamte/tamciтіте
Genitiveтамтых ⟨tamtŷch⟩tamtychтихтех
Dativeтамтым ⟨tamtŷm⟩tamtymтимтем
Accusative (inanimate)тамто́ты ⟨tamtótŷtamteтіте
Accusative (animate)тамтых ⟨tamtŷch
tamtychтихтех
Instrumentalтамты́ма ⟨tamtŷma⟩tamtymiти́мите́ми
Locativeтых ⟨tamtŷch⟩tamtychтихтех

References

1. ^ Fontański, H., Chomiak, M.  (2000). Ґраматыка лемківского языка [Grammar of the Lemko Language]. Śląsk.

2. ^ Pyrtej, P. (2013). Лемківські говірки. Фонетика і морфологія. Об’єднання лемків [Lemko Dialects. Phonetics and Morphology].

3. Vasmer, M. (1958). Russisches Etymologisches Wörterbuch, Dritter Band: Sta–Ÿ [Russian Etymological Dictionary, Volume Three: Sta–Ÿ]. Carl Winter Universitätsverlag.

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