Petro Orynycz

Peer-Reviewed Scientist. Software Engineer. Computational Linguist.

Peer-reviewed and published. Please cite as:

Orynycz, P. (2023). BLEU Skies for Endangered Language Revitalization: Lemko Rusyn and Ukrainian Neural AI Translation Accuracy Soars. In: Degen, H., Ntoa, S. (eds) Artificial Intelligence in HCI. HCII 2023. Lecture Notes in Computer Science(), vol 14051. Springer, Cham.

Orynycz, P. (2022). Say It Right: AI Neural Machine Translation Empowers New Speakers to Revitalize Lemko. In: Degen, H., Ntoa, S. (eds) Artificial Intelligence in HCI. HCII 2022. Lecture Notes in Computer Science(), vol 13336. Springer, Cham.

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Lemko рік ⟨rik⟩ ‘year’

Learn the meaning, origin, and morphology of the Lemko masculine noun рікrik⟩, as well as how to memorize it.


The forms of the Lemko word рікrik⟩ listed below are translatable into English as “year” or “years”.


To memorize the Lemko word рікrik⟩, English speakers might imagine something reeking at a New Year’s Eve party (Lemko rik and English reek are pronounced practically the same).


From Proto-Slavic *rokŭ ‘time’, itself a deverbal noun from *rekti ‘say’, whose cognates include Old Church Slavonic рокъ (ⱃⱁⰽⱏ) ⟨rokŭ⟩ ‘time, term’, as well as possibly English reckon, Sanskrit रचयति ⟨racáyati⟩ “construct, work”, Gothic 𐍂𐌰𐌷𐌽𐌾𐌰𐌽 ⟨rahnjan⟩ ‘reckon’ (Pokorny 1959, p. 863, see also Vasmer, 1955, p. 532) and Welsh rhegi ‘curse’ (Derksen, 2008, pp. 433, 438).

The entry for the Proto-Slavic noun *rokъ on page 438 of Derksen’s Etymological Dictionary of the Slavic Inherited Lexicon.
The entry for the Proto-Slavic verb *rekti on page 433 of Derksen’s Etymological Dictionary of the Slavic Inherited Lexicon.
The entry rē̆k- on page 863 of Pokorny’s Indo-Germanic Etymological Dictionary (1959), which mentions Old Church Slavonic rokъ.
The entry for the Muscovite Russian noun рок ⟨rok⟩ in Vasmer’s Russian Etymological Dictionary (1955, p. 532), which mentions Ukrainian rik.



Nominativeрік ⟨rikarokрікго́д
Genitiveро́ка ⟨rókabrokuро́куго́да
Dativeроко́ви ⟨rókovybrokowiро́кові, ро́куго́ду
Accusativeрік ⟨rikarokрікго́д
Instrumentalро́ком ⟨rókomcrokiemро́комго́дом
Locativeро́ці ⟨rócicrokuро́ціго́де
Vocativeроку ⟨rókurokuро́куго́д

a The nominative and accusative form of Lemko рік ⟨rik⟩ ‘year’ is the same as the genitive plural of ріка ⟨rika⟩ ‘river’. Horoszczak (2004, p. 330) provides the nominative and accusative singular as “рик ryk⟩, рікrik⟩”.

b See Pyrtej (2013, p. 46) for the genitive and dative singular forms of Lemko рік ⟨rik⟩ ‘year’. Photograph below.

Table on page 46 of Pyrtej’s Lemko Dialects. Phonetics and Morphology

c See Pyrtej (2013, p. 47) for the instrumental and locative singular forms of Lemko рік ⟨rik⟩ ‘year’. Photograph below.

Table on page 47 of Pyrtej’s Lemko Dialects. Phonetics and Morphology


Nominativeро́кы ⟨rókŷlataро́ки́го́ды, года́, лета́
Genitiveро́ків ⟨rókivlatро́кі́вгодо́в, ле́т
Dativeро́кам ⟨rókamblatomро́ка́мгода́м, лета́м
Accusativeро́кы ⟨rókŷlataро́ки́го́ды, года́, лета́
Instrumentalрока́ми ⟨rokámylatamiро́ка́мигода́ми, лета́ми
Locativeро́ках ⟨rókachlatachро́ка́хгода́х, лета́х
Vocativeро́кы ⟨rókŷlataро́ки́го́ды, года́, лета́


^ Derksen, Rick. (2008). In Lubotsky, A. (Ed.), Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series: Vol. 4. Etymological Dictionary of the Slavic Inherited Lexicon. Koninklijke Brill NV.

Fontański, H., Chomiak, M.  (2000). Ґраматыка лемківского языка [Grammar of the Lemko Language]. Śląsk.

^ Horoszczak, J. (2004). Słownik łemkowsko-polski, polsko-łemkowski [Lemko-Polish and Polish-Lemko Dictionary]. Rutenika.

^ Pokorny, Julius. (1959). Indogermanisches Etymologisches Wörterbuch [Indo-Germanic Etymological Dictionary]. A. Francke AG Verlag Bern.

^ ^ Pyrtej, P. (2013). Лемківські говірки. Фонетика і морфологія. Об’єднання лемків [Lemko Dialects. Phonetics and Morphology]. Обʼєднання лемків [Lemko Union].

^ Vasmer, M. (1955). Russisches Etymologisches Wörterbuch, Zweiter Band: L–Ssuda [Russian Etymological Dictionary, Volume Two: L–Ssuda]. Carl Winter Universitätsverlag.


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Meet Pete

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Pioneer and deploy breakthrough artificial intelligence and natural language processing technologies to strengthen communities, national security, and public health & safety, including via revitalization of indigenous, minority and endangered languages.


I am a senior software engineer specializing in natural language processing (NLP) applications, including artificial intelligence (AI) neural machine translation (NMT), with decades of transatlantic experience.


Invented world’s first and only Lemko Rusyn/Ukrainian machine translation engine, with paper published by apex journal Springer Nature. Work trusted by defense, law enforcement, Google, Amazon, Siemens, Raytheon, BMW and Mercedes.


Fellow alumnus of Copernicus, the astronomer 🔭 who discovered the Earth went around the sun, and Pope John Paul II 🇻🇦: graduated from the East Slavic Philology Department 🏫 of Jagiellonian University 🎓in Kraków (now Poland 🇵🇱).


Slavic Hungarian-American 🇭🇺🇺🇸 of Lemko Rusyn Ukrainian 🇺🇦 ethnicity (just like Andy Warhol!), also a speaker of Polish 🇵🇱 and Russian 🇷🇺.


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