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Peer-reviewed and published. Please cite as:

Orynycz, P. (2022). Say It Right: AI Neural Machine Translation Empowers New Speakers to Revitalize Lemko. In: Degen, H., Ntoa, S. (eds) Artificial Intelligence in HCI. HCII 2022. Lecture Notes in Computer Science(), vol 13336. Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-031-05643-7_37

Lemko быти ⟨bŷty⟩ ‘be’

Lemko быти ⟨bŷty⟩ ‘be’

To be or not to be? Быти або не быти? That is the question, and now you can conjugate the infinitives made famous by the opening line of Hamlet’s soliloquy in Lemko using the automatic translation service LemkoTran, or craft your own copulae using this handy DIY guide.

Translations

The Lemko verb быти (scientific transliteration: ⟨bŷty⟩) means”to be” in English, być in Polish, бути ⟨buty⟩ in Standard Ukrainian, and быть ⟨byt’⟩ in Muscovite Russian.

EnglishLemkoPolishUkrainianRussian
beбыти ⟨bŷty⟩byćбутибыть
Translations of the Lemko verb быти into English, Polish, Ukrainian, and Russian.

Etymology

The Lemko infinitive быти ⟨bŷty⟩, meaning “to be”, comes from the Proto-Slavic athematic verb *byti, and is related to Sanskrit भूति ⟨bhūtíṣ⟩ “wellbeing” (Vasmer 1953, p. 159; Pokorny 1959 147), Persian بودن ⟨būdan⟩ “be” (Pokorny, p. 147), Latin futūrus “future” (Vasmer, p. 159, Pokorny, p. 149), and via Old English bēon, English be (Pokorny, p. 149).

Attestation

Hamlet’s famous opening line “To be or not to be, that is the question” is alluded to in the following published pieces found in the wild:

Для дакотрых орґанізаций є то быти або не быти, значыт, без тых грошів не сут в силі нич зреализувати.” (LEM.fm 2021)

Transcription
dl'a dakotrŷch organizacyj je to bŷty abo ne bŷty, značŷt, bez tŷch hrošiv ne sut v syl'i nyč zrealyzuvaty.

Translation
For some organizations, it's to be or not to be, meaning they will not be able to achieve anything without those funds.

От нашых діл и нашой віры буде рішатися вопрос: ци нам лемкам быти, ци не быти?….” (Цисляк 1964, p. 162)

Transliteration
Ot našŷch dil y našoj virŷ bude rišatysia vopros: cy nam lemkam bŷty, cy ne bŷty?…
Translation
Our affairs and our faith will be decide the question of whether we Lemkos are to be or not to be

Inflection

Future Tense

Root: буд– ⟨bud-⟩

The future tense of the Lemko verb for to be, быти ⟨bŷty⟩, is formed by adding personal endings to the root bud-, equivalent to will in English.

Etymology

Lemko bud- comes from the Proto-Slavic root *bǫd-. Compare the suffix -bund in English moribund from Latin moribundus (Pokorny, p. 150, Vasmer, p. 136).

Conjugation Table

EnglishLemkoPolishUkrainianRussian
I willбуду ⟨búdu⟩bęбудубуду
you willбудеш⟨búdeš⟩będzieszбудешбудешь
(s)he willбуде ⟨búdet⟩będzieбудебудет
we willбудеме ⟨budéme⟩będziemyбудемобудем
you all willбудете ⟨budéte⟩będziecieбудетебудете
they willбудут ⟨búdut⟩bęбудутьбудут
Forms of the future tense conjugation of Lemko verb быти ⟨bŷty⟩ translated into English, Polish, Standard Ukrainian, and Russian.
Reference
Fontański & Chomiak (2000, p. 106).

Present Tense

Root: є– ⟨je-⟩, с– ⟨s-⟩

In Lemko, the present tense of the verb to be is formed in the singular from the root є- ⟨je-⟩, and in the plural from the root с- ⟨s-⟩.

Etymology

All the below forms trace back to the ancestor of the Proto-Slavic root *es-, to which personal endings were affixed. Compare to English is, German ist, Latin est, Ancient Greek ἐστί ⟨estí⟩, Persian است ⟨ast⟩, and Sanskrit अस्ति ⟨ásti⟩ (Pokorny, pp. 340-341; Vasmer, p. 405).

Conjugation Table

EnglishLemkoPolishUkrainianRussian
I amєм ⟨jem⟩jestemєесть
you areєс ⟨jes⟩jesteśєесть
(s)he isєст ⟨jest⟩ajestєесть
we areсме ⟨sme⟩bjesteśmyєесть
you all areсте ⟨ste⟩cjesteścieєесть
they areсут ⟨sut⟩єесть
Forms of the present tense conjugation of the Lemko verb быти ⟨bŷty⟩ translated into English, Polish, Standard Ukrainian, and Russian.

a The Lemko third-person singular form єст ⟨jest⟩ is now being replaced by є ⟨je⟩, though this is still rare (Fontański & Chomiak 2000, p. 109).

b Fontański & Chomiak (2000, p. 109) give the Lemko first-person plural form as (єсме)сме/зме ⟨(jesme)sme/zme⟩.

c Fontański & Chomiak (2000, p. 109) give the Lemko second-person plural form as (єсте)сте ⟨(jeste)ste⟩.

Reference
Fontański & Chomiak (2000, p. 106).

Past Tense

Root: был- ⟨bŷl-⟩

The past tense of the verb “to be” is formed in Lemko by adding any appropriate gender and plural markers to the stem был- ⟨bŷl-⟩, translatable into English as was or were.

Etymology

Lemko был ⟨bŷl⟩ is undoubtedly the continuation of Proto-Slavic resultative participle *bylŭ. Compare to Ancient Greek φῦλον ⟨phylon⟩ (Vasmer, p. 159), whence English phylum.

Conjugation Tables

Masculine

Use the following to refer to males or mixed parties of males and females, as well as objects of grammatically masculine gender. Male virility is not a grammatical category in Lemko, unlike Polish.

EnglishLemkoPolishUkrainianRussian
I wasя былa
⟨ja bŷl⟩
byłemя бувя был
you wereты былb
⟨tý bŷl⟩
byłeśти бувты был
he wasвін был
⟨vin bŷl⟩
byłвін бувон был
we wereмы былиc
⟨mŷ bŷly⟩
byliśmyми булимы были
you guys wereвы былиd
⟨vŷ bŷly⟩
byliścieви буливы были
those guys wereони были
⟨ony bŷly⟩
byliвони булиони были
Forms of the masculine past tense conjugation of the Lemko verb быти ⟨bŷty⟩ translated into English, Polish, Standard Ukrainian, and Russian.

a Fontański & Chomiak (2000, p. 109) cite был єм ⟨bŷl em⟩ as an alternative masculine first person singular form of the past of the verb “to be”.

b Fontański & Chomiak (2000, p. 109) cite был єс ⟨bŷl es⟩ as an alternative masculine second person singular form of the past of the verb “to be”.

c Fontański & Chomiak (2000, p. 109) cite были сме ⟨bŷly sme⟩ as an alternative first person plural form of the past of the verb “to be”.

d Fontański & Chomiak (2000, p. 109) cite были сте ⟨bŷly ste⟩ as an alternative second person plural form of the past of the verb “to be”.

Reference
Fontański & Chomiak (2000, p. 106).
Feminine

Use the below to refer to females and objects of grammatically feminine gender.

EnglishLemkoPolishUkrainianRussian
I wasя былаa
⟨ja bŷla⟩
byłamя булая была
you wereты былаb
⟨tý bŷla⟩
byłaśти булаты была
she wasона была
⟨ona bŷla⟩
byłaвона булаон была
we wereмы былиc
⟨mŷ bŷly⟩
byłyśmyми булимы были
you gals wereвы былиd
⟨wŷ bŷly⟩
byłyścieви буливы были
those gals wereони были
⟨ony bŷly⟩
byłyвони булиони были
Forms of the feminine past tense conjugation of the Lemko verb быти ⟨bŷty⟩ translated into English, Polish, Standard Ukrainian, and Russian.

a Fontański & Chomiak (2000, p. 109) cite была єм ⟨bŷla em⟩ and былам ⟨bŷlam⟩ as alternative feminine first person singular forms of the past of the verb “to be”.

b Fontański & Chomiak (2000, p. 109) cite была єс ⟨bŷla es⟩ and былас ⟨bŷlas⟩ as alternative feminine second person singular forms of the past of the verb “to be”.

c Fontański & Chomiak (2000, p. 109) cite были сме ⟨bŷly sme⟩ as an alternative first person plural form of the past of the verb “to be”.

d Fontański & Chomiak (2000, p. 109) cite были сте ⟨bŷly ste⟩ as an alternative second person plural form of the past of the verb “to be”.

Reference
Fontański & Chomiak (2000, p. 106).
Neuter

Use the below to refer to objects of grammatically neuter gender.

EnglishLemkoPolishUkrainianRussian
it wasоно было
⟨ono bŷlo⟩
byłoвоно булооно было
they wereони были
⟨ony bŷly⟩
byłyвони булиони были
Forms of the neuter past tense conjugation of the Lemko verb быти ⟨bŷty⟩ translated into English, Polish, Standard Ukrainian, and Russian.
Reference
Fontański & Chomiak (2000, p. 106).

References

  1. Fontański, H., Chomiak, M.  (2000). Ґраматыка лемківского языка [Grammar of the Lemko Language]. Śląsk.
  2. Vasmer, M. (1953). Russisches Etymologisches Wörterbuch, Erster Band: A – K [Russian Etymological Dictionary, Volume One: A – K]. Carl Winter Universitätsverlag.
  3. Pokorny, J. (1959). Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch, I. Band [Indo-Germanic Etymological Dictionary, Volume One]. A. Francke AG Verlag.
  4. Цисляк, А. (1964). Нашы Родны Бескиды [Our Ancestral Beskid Mountains]. In: Карпаторусский Календарь Лемко-Союза На Год 1964. Типография Лемко-Союза.
  5. Lem.fm (2021). Хто робит, а хто… но власні, што? [He Who Does, and He Who… Well, What?], www.Lem.fm.
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